Four Forces

There are four fundamental forces that act in the universe today:

Force particle relative strength range (meters)
Electromagnetic photon 1/137 infinite
Gravitational graviton 6 X 10-39 infinite
Weak nuclear weakon 10-5 10-17
Strong nuclear gluon 1 10-15
According to the Grand Unified Theories (GUTs), these forces were unified in the early universe so that their identities were inseparable. Inflation is one of the GUTs.


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